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Some of these stations survived the last 100 (and more!) years intactly, others were restored and modernized.
The oldest (1854) of existing today weather stations is situated at Osterwald embankment of Swiss Neuchatel. You can find details in August issue of magazine "Heimatschutz / Sauvegarde", 2004.
They have different names in different languages: meteorological column in English, colonne météorologique in French, Wettersäule in German. The architectural appearance of weather stations was different too. You can find a growing photographic archive of ancient and new weather stations at www.wettersaeulen-in-europa.de web site.
In the USA weather stations were named "weather kiosks". Weather kiosks were installed by Weather Bureau of Department Agriculture. It is known that weather kiosks were mounted at Washington, D.C. (1909), Peoria, Illinois (1912-1936), Chicago and San Diego, California (1912). To read more look into "Montly Weather Review" magazine Vol. XXXVII, March, 1909, pages 89-91.
In Saint Petersburg a Meteorological Weather Pavilion was erected in 1914. Architect Nikolay Evgenyevich Lansere was the author of the project ordered by the Town Council. Initially a pavilion was placed at the corner of Nevsky Prospekt and Malaya Konyushennaya Ulitsa, opposite to Kazansky Cathedral. In 1997 pavilion was restored in a new place - the central part of Malaya Konyushennaya Ulitsa not far from the Swedish Consulate. Alexey Nikolayevich Lansere, son of Nikolay Lansere, was participant of renovation process.
Now the meteorological pavilion is equipped with one week recording devices - thermograph and barograph.
The more things change, the more they stay the same. Mankind is still interested in Earth's atmosphere. Following the Man weather kiosks become more "intelligent", they are linked up to weather networks which connect numerous weather cameras keeping watch over Earth's atmosphere.
Evgeniy Denisov, Article how meteorology came into Russia from "Kommersant-Dengi" magazine №47(603), November 27, 2006 (in Russian)
Monthly reports of 17 automatic stations from Saint-Petersburg about level of air pollution (since January 2004) (in Russian, too)