In Russia botanical gardens were laid out by the decree and with personal participation of Peter the Great
: in Moscow in 1706 and in Saint Petersburg - in 1714. At first the gardens were called "pharmaceutical gardens" and were used for collecting, studying and utilization of medicinal plants.
Later, the sphere of activity of the gardens was extended and became more complicated. The objects of the "pharmaceutical garden" were formulated as propagation of the medicinal plants, experiments on methods of propagation and cultivation, seed exchange and collection of plants. In 1736 the Garden of Saint Petersburg numbered 1272 plant species of the open and protected grounds, among them plants native to Siberia, the Caucasus, Sweden, Mongolia, China, Germany and other countries. So this institution became, in the true sense, botanical garden.
In 1823, the Garden was renamed the Imperial Botanical Garden
and became the centre of the botanical science in Russia. At that time the Garden possessed 25 greenhouses
and 2920 species of new plants were imported from England, Belgium, Germany and France. Unfortunately, most part of the plants died during a heavy flood
Grand Palm greenhouse (№ 26) and greenhouse of Victoria amazonica
(№ 28) were build later in 1896-1899 by architects Ieronim Sevastyanovich Kitner
and Nikolay Ivanovich de Rochefort
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